Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Advantages and Disadvantages of Fdi in India free essay sample

Points of interest and Disadvantages of Fad in India BY demeanor FAD in Multi-brand Retail in India: Signs of New Resolve S Marylyn 1 Dry S Nary is Head of Research and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of South Asian Studies (ISIS), a self-ruling exploration foundation at the National University of Singapore. He was some time ago Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister of India. Dry Nary can be reached at [emailprotected] Com. The perspectives communicated in this paper are those of the creator and don't really mirror those of ISIS. In September 2012, the Government of India declared a few monetary approach change quantifies that incorporated a transition to permit 51 percent outside direct speculation (FAD) in multi-brand retail. In a similar declaration, it loosened up standards for outside direct interest in the avionics division, permitting global carriers to put resources into local companions and freed a huge number from other change situated estimates an expansion of FAD in some communicating administrations. The issue of FAD in retail has pulled in extensive political discussion. The issue was first proposed by the Government in 2010, yet must be pulled back in view of political restriction. This time, the Government gives off an impression of being firm in pushing the strategy through. It is conceivable to illustrate a few purposes behind the assurance of the Government. To start with, the decision United Progressive Alliance (PUPA) Government, and specifically the Congress party, has been battered by claims of debasement and tricks all through 2012, and necessities a breather to set up its power to oversee. The analysis in the remote media and by scholastics that the Government has been in a condition of strategy loss of motion, which has kept it from taking even fundamental measures to improve administration, has groove its picture. The emergency in coal flexibly for power age and the poor advancement of framework ventures have given the feeling that official choices have stopped. On the exchange front, the developing current record shortfall, just as the debilitating of the rupee, has been viewed as notice signals for the economy. The developing monetary deficiency, the failure to control use on endowments, and an easing back economy have made worldwide financial specialists and rating offices minimize assumptions regarding the Indian economy. The most recent GAP development figures of 5. Re penny are lower than the desires for the Government and the Reserve Bank of India the same, and the diligent expansion is harming the whole populace, particularly those with fixed livelihoods. There was, subsequently, a need to prompt some certainty about the economy. Previously, the current record shortage was spanned by FAD, inflows into capital markets, and through incoherence. Of these, the initial two had seen a sharp drop in 2010 and 2011. The value markets were exchanging 30 percent underneath pre-2008 emergency levels, with little craving for new capital issues. Prevailing fashion was dropping point by point after 2008 and dropped to 40 percent of the 2011-12 level in the ensuing year. The high monetary deficiency was likewise swarming out private borrowings. To put it plainly, there was requirement for an adjustment to mix outer capital into the economy by improving the feeling in the monetary markets and by giving a sign that could reestablish F streams. The change declarations of September 2012 were an endeavor at that. There were different contentions also. The retail segment in India has been developing at a consolidated yearly development pace of 6. Percent over the period 1998-2010, and is evaluated to be worth around RSI. 50,000 scores (IIS$ 10 billion) in 2010. Notwithstanding, the commitment of sorted out retail stays low. As against the United States, which has the composed to unrecognized proportion of 85:1 5, in India, it is just 10:90. Sorted out retail has been developing quickly and is relied upon to have a portion of 22 perc ent before 2017. There are additionally a few utilization related development drivers for retail. Indians per capita salary, in genuine terms, has multiplied somewhere in the range of 2000 and 2011, and pay levels are relied upon to significantly increase in ostensible terms in the following 20 years. Normal genuine family unit salary has developed at a yearly pace of 3. 8 percent from 1985 to 2005. The white collar class populace as characterized at a salary level of RSI. 200,000 or more at the 2000-cost level is relied upon to increment to 40 percent of the populace by 2025. Per family unit utilization consumption has likewise multiplied in the most recent decade alongside rising pay levels. The quick pace of assertion is likewise changing utilization designs. According to the United Nations condition of the populaces report, 40 percent of Indians populace is relied upon to dwell in urban agglomerates by 2030. At last, the anemographic example of the populace, with 60 percent of the populace at 35 years or less, is driving utilization towards increasingly present day, innovatively propelled items that are the quality of current retail outlets. As far as the portion of the different parts in the retail business in India, attire and food have a portion of 38. 1 percent and 1. 5 percent separately, as indicated by the FIEF retail report 2011. 3 according to the Indian Governments declared approach, FAD in multi-brand retail is to be permitted distinctly in towns which have a populace of more than one million, which limits the section to around 35 urban communities. The base add up to be acquired by the remote player is IIS$ 100 million; 50 percent of the complete FAD got ought to be put resources into back-end foundation, for example, handling, coordinations, warehousing and enhancements in assembling. New agrarian items might be unbranded. Trend in multi-brand retail exchanging the type of web based business would not be reasonable. Resource creation is relied upon to be done basically by the outside player. The favorable position, from the Governments perspective, is an expanded open door for business. It is assessed that sorted out retail has made more than 1. Million Jobs in the period 2005-2009. The nature of work is additionally better than the open doors in the unrecognized part. The composed part would make a higher commitment to burden incomes through expanded VAT and in the end, SST incomes. From the perspective of clients, they are probably going to improve items, lower faulty things, expanded decision and nature of items, and the accessibility of worldwide items in neighborhood markets. For the ranchers, there would be a decrease in the degree of middle people, improvement in flexibly chain the board, essential framework n cold chain, warehousing and transportation coordinations, mechanical enhancements in crop creation, and sane and reasonable valuing of items. The restriction of relevance to urban communities with a populace of one million or more infers this would be appropriate just to 35 urban areas in 15 states. These are Andorra Pradesh, Briar, Delhi, Gujarat, Harlan, Shorthand, Karakas, Kraal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharajahs, Punjab, Restaurants, Tamil Nadia, Attar Pradesh and West Bengal. It is likewise specified in the strategy that State Governments and Union Territories would be allowed to take their success choices with respect to the usage of the arrangement. In context, this arrangement seems to have a few critical positives. It is an official choice, well inside the domain of the official, with no requirement for parliamentary endorsement. To start with, on the financial side, this would prompt modernization of retail and interest in innovation, coordinations and the worth chain. Second, there would be chances of more noteworthy, higher caliber of business. Third, multiplier impacts can be had in the local economy in the fields of warehousing, transportation and subordinate exercises. Fourth, this opens up open doors for improving the nature of work in these segments. Fifth, there is a confirmation of more noteworthy income control. 6th, this would prompt all the more internal capital streams and speculations. Against this scenery, there has been solid restriction to the move and ideological groups are arranged to contradict the move. One of the individuals from the PUPA, the Traditional Congress, has left the union on this issue, leaving the Government actually in parliamentary minority, however they have the outside help of two significant gatherings from Attar Pradesh. 4 The restriction advances a few contentions. To start with, that unrecognized retail in India is controlled by an enormous number of little business people who serve the prompt neighborhood, and who might be driven bankrupt by the approach of huge grocery stores. There is proof this has occurred in certain states in the US and in littler towns in the United Kingdom and Australia. The little stores would not have the mechanical ability or the budgetary muscle to contend on equivalent footing with the huge retail chains, and henceforth would be off guard. The quality of little retail lies in commonality with the client, that empowers credit exchanges to otherwise known as spot and accommodates client comforts like little amounts and home conveyance, which would not be conceivable from an enormous retail chain. Further, the very idea of huge retail venture would require huge land space, requiring transportation and higher exchange volumes. In this way the idea is elitist, accessible just to a chosen few in the higher salary ranges, and not of utilization to the basic man, who establishes of more than 50 percent of the rustic and modest community purchasers. So runs the contention. Also, it is fought that ranchers would be off guard. The huge retailers would be in a situation to uphold gracefully gets that would push ranch costs down, in this manner influencing ranchers salaries. Third, the propensity to stock mass-fabricated products would prompt progressively imported merchandise being on offer, to the impediment of nearby makers. At long last, the littler retail locations can offer work to even untalented specialists, of whom there are bounty in India. The work necessity in huge multi-

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Chesapeake Energy Corporation

regular gas† {Chesapeake Annual Report, 1998, p. 1}. As of late, Chesapeake completed the change from a forceful investigation organization concentrated on growing short-save life, to a lower-chance, longer save life gaseous petrol maker. Chesapeake†s activities are centered around â€Å"developmental penetrating and delivering property acquisitions.† These tasks are â€Å"concentrated in three significant zones: the Mid-mainland, the coastal Gulf of Mexico and far northeastern British Columbia, Canada† [Chesapeake Annual Report, 1998, p. 1]. Aubrey K. McClendon is Chesapeake†s Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and Director. Tom L. Ward is the President, Chief Operating Officer and Director. â€Å"McClendon met fellow benefactor Tom Ward in the 1980†³s. Both were free oil makers; they collaborated in 1983† [Morgenson, p. 2]. They each have over 16 years of involvement with the oil and gaseous petrol industry. Every other individual from the supervisory crew have numerous long stretches of involvement with the business. Chesapeake has focused on growing its possessions in flammable gas since the company†s joining in 1989. Chesapeake feels that flammable gas will be the fuel decision of the 21st century. The organization has been profoundly serious in the two its investigation exercises and endeavors to expand its stock of lacking leasehold land. This mix should empower Chesapeake to stay a serious power in the vitality delivering industry. New innovation in the oil and gas industry has made investigation and creation increasingly productive. This is key for the endurance of American organizations that rival OPEC and other remote cartels that have low creation costs. New innovation, including three-dimensional imaging, which has more prominent goals than the beforehand existing innovation, will empower Chesapeake to identify saves all the more precisely. Additionally, flat boring has empowered organizations to deplete more than each save in turn. With benefits proceeding to be pressed inside this industry, new innovation is important to enable American organizations to contend on a worldwide scale. The oil and gas industry is really a worldwide market. The business helped gains in 1999 from expanded creation productivity and an abatement in the present gracefully. U.S. firms, alongside OPEC, have deliberately discounted their complete creation, which has expanded the cost. OPEC presently supplies roughly 40% of the world oil creation. On the off chance that OPEC decides to deliver at a lower yield, Chesapeake could without much of a stretch increment creation with its low creation costs and colossal stores. Numerous different countries are developing as contenders, for example, the previous Soviet Union and Latin American nations. The proceeding with increment in gracefully from different countries would possibly soak the market, causing lower costs and lower benefits. Request is required to rise just somewhat in excess of two percent during that time 2005. The standpoint for this industry is for expanded rivalry locally (from littler organizations) and universally from rising countries. The U.S. has predominant innovation, which will help keep benefits up as flexibly increments and request remains generally consistent. Flammable gas makes up 72% of Chesapeake†s income. They as a rule offer the item to outsiders and are not subject to any one purchaser. Under 10% of their incomes are created from two purchasers. Administrative Regulations †Operational and Labor Relations The oil and gas businesses are dependent upon significant government guideline. These laws and guidelines are basically coordinated toward â€Å"the dealing with and removal of boring and creation squander items and waste made by water and air contamination control devices† [Chesapeake 10-K, 1998, p. 10]. The oil and gas industry is responsible to various government offices, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Energy, the State Department and the Department of Commerce. For all intents and purposes each part of tasks is dependent upon complex and regularly evolving guidelines. The oil and gas industry is firmly managed with respect to work relations by government office and offices, including the Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) and the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). A few states have their own state supported word related security plans, while the rest of follow government OSHA guidelines. A portion of the themes secured under OSHA incorporate individual defensive hardware, risky correspondence (HAZCOM) and wellbeing process preparing. Chesapeake had 453 representatives as of March 15, 1999. None of these workers were spoken to by sorted out worker's organizations. The organization believes its worker relations to be acceptable [Chesapeake 10-K, 1998, p. 13]. Unocal (NYSE: UCL) utilized 7,880 individuals as of December 31, 1998, of which 575 were spoken to by different U.S. worker's guilds [Unocal 10-K, 1998, p. 12]. The two organizations are dependent upon new laws and guidelines with respect to the earth and work. Chesapeake and Unocal can't foresee what antagonistic money related conditions the new laws and guidelines will bring. In any case, present moment and long haul costs will increment as organizations improve existing activities to become and stay agreeable with government guidelines. Accordingly, all organizations in petro-concoction enterprises are encountering enormous trouble working productive organizations. A few organizations have stopped tasks because of expanded guideline combined with poor overall revenues. Chesapeake is at a higher hazard with respect to this situation since the vast majority of its activities are local. Unocal, albeit a U.S. based organization, activities are focused fundamentally abroad, and consequently experience expanded tolerance with respect to natural and work guidelines. During the most recent two years, Chesapeake Corporation endured a critical shot as far as profit, stock cost and FICO assessments. Positive 1996 profit went to a misfortune in 1997 and tumbled to a greater loss of $10 per share in 1998. This profit decay caused the stock cost and FICO assessment to plunge. The organization likewise faces a legal claim originating from supposed infringement of government protections laws. Top administration and executives are blamed for utilizing insider data to sell individual possessions in the organization at falsely expanded costs. Chesapeake had disillusioning a very long time in 1997 and 1998 as prove by the fall in the stock cost. The organization experienced a considerable repositioning to expand petroleum gas property and lessen hazard. Because of this repositioning, Chesapeake caused significant obligation and is subject to the market costs of oil and petroleum gas to increment, and essentially, improve net revenues. Also, in 1997, Chesapeake changed their monetary year end from June 30th to December 31st. As a feature of the repositioning, Chesapeake expanded long haul obligation over $400 million to a sum of $920 million, combined with a transient obligation of $25 million. This expanded getting radically diminished the company†s capacity to acquire extra financing. Standard Poor†s and Moody†s set Chesapeake on audit with a negative viewpoint. The capacity to meet commitments for this extra obligation will rely upon the creation and budgetary execution of the organization, showcase costs of oil and flammable gas, and general monetary conditions. Basic Size Income Statement Analysis Chesapeake had an incredibly huge record of benefits (weakness) because of marked down oil and gas costs during the previous barely any years. This charge expanded working expenses by over $1.2 billion during 1997-98 with 72% of that cost coming in 1998. The advantage record, joined with cost increments underway, promoting and intrigue, were the fundamental donors of all out working expenses to be more than multiple times complete income. The outcome was 1998 EBIT of ($920) million, and a non-existent ROE, since the organization had a total deficit drawing nearer $1 billion. Unocal†s ROE was 5.9% in 1998 and 25.1% in 1997. The disability cost announced by Chesapeake is flawed as a result of the extremely huge sum that was charged. In context, Unocal with over $5 billion in property resources recorded a debilitation charge of $97 million during 1998. On the off chance that oil and gas costs ascend sooner rather than later, the impedance expenses might be turned around giving the feeling that the organization is doing quite well. Future financial specialists of Chesapeake values ought to consider this reality preceding creation any venture choices. Chesapeake had a $140 million decrease to the two sides of the asset report. The repositioning of the firm centered around expanding stock of petroleum gas holds, â€Å"the fuel of decision for the 21st century† [1998 Annual Report, pg. 18]. Oil and gas properties about multiplied from 1997 to 1998, totaling $2.2 billion. In any case, about $1.6 billion was devalued, drained and amortized. Also, money diminished almost $100 million, transient ventures were exchanged, and paid-in capital surpassed $1.1 billion in the course of recent years to give extra money to acquisition of gas saves. Subsequently, complete property, plant and gear was 85% of all out resources in 1998 contrasted with 77% in 1997. In correlation, Unocal†s PPE was 66% and 64% of absolute resources individually. Long haul obligation expanded over $400 million out of 1998, totaling $920 million contrasted with $510 million of every 1997. The $920 million was 113% according to add up to liabilities and proprietors value of $813 million. In 1998, current liabilities were $131 million contrasted with current resources of $118 million. This brought about a diminished current proportion of .90 from a 1997 proportion of 1.42. The Unocal current proportions during 1998 and 1997 were 1.01 and 1.29 individually. Chesapeake has depended basically on income through financing exercises during the previous not many years. Income from show

Monday, August 10, 2020

Oak Ridge

Oak Ridge Oak Ridge, city (1990 pop. 27,310), Anderson and Roane counties, E Tenn., on Black Oak Ridge and the Clinch River; founded by the U.S. government 1942, inc. as an independent city 1959. For years Oak Ridge was used by the federal government to pursue activities in the fields of atomic energy and nuclear physics. The site was chosen (1942) for what was called the Clinton Engineer Works, and the city was built to house the workers who developed the uranium-235 and plutonium-239 for the atomic bomb. The community's existence was kept secret from most of the country until the summer of 1945. The project was under the control of the Atomic Energy Commission , but the city has since (1955â€"59) been turned over to its residents. The former Clinton National Laboratory for nuclear research became (1948) the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In the 1990s the federal government began decontaminating and leasing much of the complex to private industry, and one section was renamed the East Tennes see Technology Park. The Oak Ridge Associated Universities, a consortium of many educational institutions, manages the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Tourist attractions include the American Museum of Atomic Energy, a nearby nuclear graphite reactor, and an arboretum. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. Political Geography

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Niche Creative Advertising, Inc. - 1790 Words

NICHE CREATIVE ADVERTISING, INC. INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR AGREEMENT This Independent Contractor Agreement (â€Å"Agreement†) is dated June 19, 2013, by and between Niche Creative Advertising, Inc., a Pennsylvania corporation (â€Å"Niche†) and Honey Studios, Inc. a Pennsylvania corporation (â€Å"Honey†). In consideration of the mutual promises set forth herein, and other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, and intending to be legally bound, the parties hereby agree as follows: 1. General Provisions. The following provisions concern Honey’s duties and term of agreement. a. Description of Services Deliverables. Honey agrees to provide the services and to deliver the Deliverables†¦show more content†¦i. Termination for Convenience. Either party may terminate this Agreement by providing thirty (30) days prior written notice to the other. In the event of such voluntary termination, Honey shall be entitled to receive compensation for expenses incurred up to the notice of termination. ii. Termination for Cause. As used in this Agreement, termination â€Å"for cause† shall mean, 1. A material breach by Honey of any of their obligations to Niche, the wanton or willful disregard of Niche’s interests and/or a knowing or deliberate violation of Niche’s rules, and the failure to cure such breach, disregard or violation within 30 days following written notice by Niche; 2. Willful misconduct (i.e., an egregious and intentional disregard of standards of behavior which can be found in the employee handbook); or 3. Any conviction for criminal fraud or theft. In the event of a cause for termination, Honey shall forfeit all fees and commissions, earned or unearned. 2. Definition of Independent Contractor. Honey is an independent contractor of Niche. Nothing contained in this Agreement shall be construed to create the relationship of

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Media Commercialization - 1906 Words

Commercialization of Indian media The media industry across the globe has witnessed spectacular changes in the recent years. There has been a considerable change in the perception of media in the olden times, as revolutionary instruments and powerful political players. Today, the media is perceived more as businesses with a motto of `remaining profitable. The growing competition along with the trend of confinement of media ownership to a few major transnational conglomerates has further intensified the commercial pressure in the terrain. This has also resulted in media proliferation, wherein numerous emerging media products embark on catering to the needs of a more fragmented market. Commodification of news has become a serious issue†¦show more content†¦Though the role and importance of media is increasing in our lives today, it’s sad that its accountability and professionalism is dwindling. â€Å"With great power comes great responsibility†. Television channels in a bid to increase their TRP ratings are resorting to sensationalized journalism with a view to earn a competitive edge over the others. Sting operations have now become the order of the day. We are a democracy of a billion plus people with the largest youth population in the world, large sections poor and uneducated, inadequate social services, and a country in transition. It is imperative that our influential intelligentsia focus unfailingly on meaningful issues since the opportunity cost is enormous. The government is increasingly sidelined by private enterprise; unprepared peasants are migrating to straining cities; and the nouveau riche anxious to express their nascent individuality is turning to incongruous consumption. Our academia is intently focused on the graduates financial remuneration, and naturally, commercial interests dont provide any discipline. Entertainment czars consume our attention, shape public opinion, and increasingly control our daily life by forming a nexus with private industry, and entering the administration. We have mall adjacent to mall adjacent to mall, and almost no democratic recreational space. Mostly the middle-class Indian comes in co ntact with one another to consume, an individualisticShow MoreRelatedMedia and Mass Communications Development on a Healthy Mature Culture1200 Words   |  5 PagesMedia and Mass Communications development on a Healthy Mature Culture This argumentative essay is specially made to discuss the possibility for media and mass communication to nurture the development of a healthy, mature culture. Overall, the process of media and mass communication media development has already caused changes in the public sphere. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Women Police Officers Free Essays

Women police officers is a developing field just like many occupations women have undertaken. Today we are realizing the rewards of having both female and male officers working together. However, it took time for this concept to progress. We will write a custom essay sample on Women Police Officers or any similar topic only for you Order Now The addition of women police officers has received assorted reactions from the public and police officers alike. I will explore the development and need for women police officers for an effective police department, inclusion of female police officers should be carried out to ensure a more diverse police culture. Women began working in law enforcement as matrons. Their work often fell along the lines of social work duties working primarily with women and children often hired by departments after being widowed from a fellow officer. Women struggle for recognition and advancement in police departments, for example the first sworn female police officer, Lola Baldwin, from Portland Oregon. Her job duties were largely of a social work nature, protecting young women working at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in 1905. Fortunately, her success in this task led to her swearing in as an officer with the power to conduct arrests in 1908. Following suit, in 1910, the Los Angeles Police Department swore in Alice Wells as the country’s first â€Å"policewoman†. In 1912 the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department swore in Margaret Adams as the nations’ first female deputy sheriff however her responsibilities typically involved evidence processing. During the Great Depression and World War II, approximately 1930-1940s, women progression in law enforcement came to a halt do to having to directly compete with men for jobs. Though they were able to continue to work in law enforcement it was more in the support capacity with roles such as dispatch and other desk oriented duties. In the 1950s women in law enforcement moved from behind the desk and out onto the streets with the male police officers. There are many causes for this advancement but most of the credit goes to the formation of the International Association of Women Police in 1956 and police departments increased battle with prostitution and illegal drug sales in the 1960s. This new war on drugs allowed for the expansion and need for more female police officers to assist with specialized operations. During the 1970s the presence of female officers in police departments became increasingly accepted by the general public because of the 1972, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act was implemented outlawing gender discrimination in public agencies, including police departments, breaking the glass ceiling to further expand opportunities for women in law enforcement, later establishing several law enforcement association devoted to women. Over the last few decades women police officers have brought a unique face to policing. They have experienced trials and struggles to be acknowledged and respected in the various levels of policing. Financial security and prestige are some of the reasons women join law eforement agencies. Taking up the challenge of being a cop and accomplishing it is a rewarding feeling to women who are expected to fail in a male dominated field. Across American states law enforcement agaencies have been accused of using brutal force when dealing with suspects. Deployment of women in the police force will reduce cases of use of force because women tend to handle suspected offenders in a human way. The American police department has evolved since its inception in 1657 in Northern America. It has undergone structural changes as it works on acheieving its goal of citizen protection. Among the noticeable change is the acceptance of women in the law enforcement agency. Women working for the American police department were only allowed to work in the office. Field matters were only left to men. Women did not wear police uniform like their male counter parts. The first police officer to join the American enforcement agency was Alice Stebbins Wells. She joined the police department in 1910. Before she joined law enforcement, Wells was a minister in Kansas, Alice petitioned the mayor of Los Angles to find her a position in the police department so that she could help in handing crime cases touching on children and women. (women could only do what job) A debate has been raging on a motion to boost the number of women officers in different states police department. Women are better than men in terms of handling suspects. Women deal with many violent criminals just like men, respond well to violent calls, defused crimes that were about to happen with the same expertise like male law enforcers. Women receive fewer complaints, accusations, involved in fewer shooting incidents than male counterparts. *According to Joseph Wambaugh, body size and stamina could no longer be used to determine one’s capability to join and survive the law enforcement units. He further stressed that gone were the days when interrogation on suspects cold be carried forcefully. Women are good at getting people to talk without using force. Hiring more women cops will reduce the number of cost and lawsuits associaited with use of brutal force by male police officers. ((Crime Center, 2005) Women deescalate tense situations by treating suspects with respect. Having women who are known to handle suspects in a human way will bridge the gap that exists between communities and law enforcement agencies because the suspect and their families feel more comfortable cooperating with officials. Handling of violence against women incidents has been a challenge in law enforcement. Inclusion of more women will help how victims are handled. In conclusion, increasing the number of women in law enforcement agencies will also improe its tarnished image of policing department that uses brutal force when handing offenders. The community will view the police as all round law enforcement catering to the needs of both men and women. Incidents of brutality will greatly reduce since studies and real time situation have proved women handle suspects while considering the laid laws of dealing with offenders. The succeeding in male dominated fields thus policing careers will not be an exception. The story of women in law enforcement continues to evolve as police departments discover that female officers bring particular gifts and abilities to the profession. These advantages often include a less confrontational style than that of their male partners, a lower likelihood of use of excessive force, the ability to exercise empathy and effectively diffuse difficult situations —especially domestic calls, and a larger field of awareness in stressful situations. Female officers’ abilities often complement those of male officers, resulting in a tactical as well as an investigative advantage when male-female teams are deployed. These advantages, if leveraged, can only advance the evolution of female service in law enforcement, and benefit the profession and those we serve and protect. There are many stories of women who helped shape our profession — some are famous, others infamous, and still others are women whose stories are not widely known but are fascinating nonetheless. Further, there are countless stories right now being written by the women law enforcers patrolling the streets across this great nation. What will your story be? Law enforcement as a career has been increasingly more popular for women in the recent years however the numbers have not increased greatly. In 2001 women accounted for only 12.7% of all sworn law enforcement positions in large agencies. It is a fact that women officers make less arrest than men officers however the arrest made by female officers tend to hold up better in court. Female officers do not appear to call in for support or assistance any more than their male counterparts. Yet they have been found to be as capable as male officers dealing with violent or angry situations. Evidence shows that because their appearance is less dangerous women officers have an advantage in dangerous situation resulting in avoiding injury to all parties involved. The acceptance of women on patrol seems to have been embraced better by the public than by males officers. Female officers have reported feeling of isolation and perceived hostilities from co workers have suggested as potential problems. Female officers are exposed to the same environmental stressors as male police officers but are not viewed as competent and may experience role conflict and job uncertainty. How to cite Women Police Officers, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Understanding Plagiarism Linguistic

Question: Discuss that plagiarism is serious issue for students and researchers or not? Answer: Plagiarism is serious issue for students and researchers. Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work. It is expected that students shall not use the work of others by their own name. It is expected that students would refer to other sources gain knowledge. However, students should not use the content of other people. It can be said that students can commit the plagiarism knowingly or unknowingly. There are certain guidelines that can ensure that students write genuine content. For example, students should not read and write at same time. It means that the first part of any academic work should be the study part of reading part. Once this is done, then students should write. There could be cases when students are required to refer to previous studies or work of others. In these cases, students should provide due reference (Hagen, 2012 ). If student is using the exact words of others then these words should be put in inverted commas. It would be correct to say that plagiarism is an important aspect of academic integrity and student must avoid plagiarism. Students should also realize that there exist specific tools in the market that can detect plagiarism. Therefore, students should not even try to produce plagiarized content. With respect to academic and education field, it can be said that plagiarism is a serious thing. Various universities have the guidelines for plagiarism and it is expected that students would follow these guidelines. There are certain ways by which plagiarism can be avoided. Students may sometime use plagiarism when they fall short of time to complete the task. In these situations, it is always advisable to ask for extension rather that producing a plagiarized content. Students should realize that plagiarism is not accepted in any form. One of an important step to ensure that plagiarism is avoided is to manage the time and start well in advance. Another important step is to make notes while studying. The notes would act as good source for students to complete the tasks. A good amount of study before writing the paper would help students to avoid plagiarism (Abraham, 2012). It is important that students should show high ethical standards and avoid plagiarism. It not only creates bad reputation but plagiarism can also affect the grades badly. There is no point in giving a plagiarized content by ones own name. It is expected that students would show maturity and they would avoid plagiarized content. Typically, copying from Internet sources does plagiarism. It would be good if student do not refer to these sources while writing the paper. The external sources and Internet sources should only be referred by studying the topic and doing the background research. References Alzahrani, S. M., Salim, N., Abraham, A. (2012). Understanding plagiarism linguistic patterns, textual features, and detection methods.Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on,42(2), 133-149. Potthast, M., Gollub, T., Hagen, M., Kiesel, J., Michel, M., Oberlnder, A., ... Stein, B. (2012, September). Overview of the 4th International Competition on Plagiarism Detection. InCLEF (Online Working Notes/Labs/Workshop).