Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Antibiotics - Discovery and Resistance

Antibiotics - Discovery and Resistance Antibiotics and antimicrobial agents are drugs or chemicals that are used to kill or hinder the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics specifically target bacteria for destruction while leaving other cells of the body unharmed. Under normal conditions, our immune system is capable of handling the germs that invade the body. Certain white blood cells known as lymphocytes protect the body against cancerous cells, pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), and foreign matter. They produce antibodies which bind to a specific antigen (disease causing agent) and label the antigen for destruction by other white blood cells. When our immune system gets overwhelmed, antibiotics can be useful in assisting the bodys natural defenses in controlling bacterial infections. While antibiotics have proven to be powerful antibacterial agents, they are not effective against viruses. Viruses are not independent living organisms. They infect cells and rely on the hosts cellular machinery for viral replication. Antibiotics Discovery Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered. Penicillin is derived from a substance produced from molds of the Penicillium fungi. Penicillin works by disrupting bacterial cell wall assembly processes and interfering with bacterial reproduction. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, but it wasnt until the 1940s that antibiotic use revolutionized medical care and substantially reduced death rates and illnesses from bacterial infections. Today, other penicillin-related antibiotics including ampicillin, amoxicillin,  methicillin, and flucloxacillin are used to treat a variety of infections. Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is becoming more and more common. Due to the prevalent use of antibiotics, resistant strains of bacteria are becoming much more difficult to treat. Antibiotic resistance has been observed in bacteria such as E.coli and MRSA. These super bugs represent a threat to public health since they are resistant to most commonly used antibiotics. Health officials warn that antibiotics should not be used to treat common colds, most sore throats, or the flu because these infections are caused by viruses. When used unnecessarily, antibiotics can lead to the spread of resistant bacteria. Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. These common bacteria infect about 30 percent of all people. In some people, S. aureus is a part of the normal group of bacteria that inhabit the body and may be found in areas such as the skin and the nasal cavities. While some staph strains are harmless, others pose serious health problems including foodborne illness, skin infections, heart disease, and meningitis. S. aureus bacteria favor the iron which is contained within the oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin found within red blood cells. S. aureus bacteria break open blood cells to obtain the iron within the cells. Changes within some strains of S. aureus have helped them to survive antibiotic treatments. Current antibiotics work by disrupting so-called cell viability processes. Disruption of cell membrane assembly processes or DNA translation are common modes of operation for current generation antibiotics. To combat this, S. aureus have devel oped a single gene mutation that alters the organisms cell wall. This enables them to prevent breaches of the cell wall by antibiotic substances. Other antibiotic resistant bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, produce a protein called MurM. This protein counteracts the effects of antibiotics by helping to rebuild the bacterial cell wall. Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Scientists are taking various approaches to deal with the issue of antibiotic resistance. One method focuses on interrupting the cellular processes involved in the sharing of genes among bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. These bacteria share resistant genes among themselves and can even bind to DNA in their environment and transport the DNA across the bacterial cell membrane. The new DNA containing the resistant genes is then incorporated into the bacterial cells DNA. Using antibiotics to treat this type of infection can actually induce this transfer of genes. Researchers are focusing on ways to block certain bacterial proteins to prevent the transfer of genes between bacteria. Another approach to fighting antibiotic resistance actually focuses on keeping the bacteria alive. Instead of trying to kill the resistant bacteria, scientists are looking to disarm them and make them incapable of causing infection. The intent of this approach is to keep the bacteria alive, but harmle ss. It is thought that this will help prevent the development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. As scientists better understand how bacteria gain resistance to antibiotics, improved methods for treating antibiotic resistance can be developed. Learn more about antibiotics and antibiotic resistance: Scientists Target Bacterial Transfer of Resistance GenesDisarming Disease-Causing BacteriaBacteria Discovery Could Lead to Antibiotics Alternatives Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work. Updated 05/01/12. cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html

Friday, November 22, 2019

Top 10 part-time holiday jobs this season

Top 10 part-time holiday jobs this season ‘Tis the season†¦to think about whether you want a seasonal holiday job this year. If you wait until the Black Friday ads are out and Starbucks unveils its holiday coffee cup designs to start thinking about what you want to do for your seasonal holiday job, it’s likely too late. So we’ve got some of the best part-time holiday gigs this year, to help you seize those early opportunities to make extra cash this holiday season. But before you get started, there are a few checklist items you should have ready, so that you’re ready to apply for jobs as they come up- because seasonal hiring can move awfully fast.Get your resume application-ready. Have your interview outfit ready to go. For a seasonal job, this may be more casual than the traditional dark suit. Whatever outfit you choose, it should be neat (no loose threads or weird hems), cleaned, and ready to go at a moment’s notice.Get in the right mindset. Holiday jobs are likely to demand your time during unconventional or inconvenient shifts. Make sure your mental expectations are aligned with a potentially hectic schedule that doesn’t leave you with a lot of free time or holiday down time.Let’s look at some of the top opportunities this holiday season, from the classic (retail) to less orthodox jobs you may not have considered.Retail Sales AssociateWhen you think of â€Å"seasonal part-time job,† you probably think of a role in a busy retail store, helping keep shelves stocked while hordes of holiday shoppers come through looking for the perfect gift. And that’s because it’s a perennial opportunity for people looking for temporary work over the holidays. You don’t need to commit to retail as a career for this kind of job, but it can also be a great experience-builder if you want to seek more retail opportunities in the future. This tends to be an â€Å"all hands on deck† kind of job. You may be tasked with assisting customers on the floor, completing sales as a cashier, or working behind the scenes with inventory, merchandising, and stocking- whatever needs doing to accommodate the holiday crowds. If this is the route you want to take, start with the big retailers (Target, WalMart, Kohl’s, etc.), but don’t be afraid to look at every store in your area and see if they have any â€Å"help wanted† notices popping up either in store or online.What you’ll need: A good retail resume, strong customer service skills to deal with every kind of customer imaginable, and time management skills. You may also be asked to work long or odd shifts throughout the holidays, so flexibility is key.Snow Removal Drivers/WorkersWe may still be firmly in autumn mode right now, but as the Starks tell us, winter is indeed coming. Many private snow removal companies and towns/cities are already looking ahead to the snowy season, hiring part-time and seasonal help to prepare for the winter’s storm s. This is less of an option if you live in, say, Florida, but if you live in an area that sees its share of snow and ice over the winter months, it can be a good option.What you’ll need: A valid driver’s license and the ability to handle heavy equipment like plows, sanding trucks, and sidewalk snow removal tools.Christmas Tree WorkersThe holiday season means Christmas tree sales, either at dedicated tree farms/garden centers, or big box stores that also sell trees (think Home Depot or Lowe’s). From Thanksgiving to Christmas, these employees help meet the influx of customers, selling and preparing trees for travel home, as well as selling and stocking other seasonal plants.What you’ll need: The ability to lift heavy objects, stand for long shifts, and work outdoors in varying conditions.Seasonal ActorsAnother classic seasonal job is playing Santa (if you’ve got the girth and the lap- beard is usually provided for you), or his entourage (think elves and Mrs. Claus). This job has been a mainstay of malls and department stores for decades and usually runs from Thanksgiving-ish through to Christmas. But Christmas actors aren’t the only ones who are needed on a seasonal basis- if you look early enough (say, September), there are also a lot of Halloween-themed jobs available, working in haunted houses or amusement parks as scary extras.What you’ll need: Acting skills, people skills, and customer service skills.Seasonal PhotographersAll the Santas and the elves come with a very important seasonal role: the photographer. Individual stores, malls, and events hire photographers every year to capture the holiday merriment for posterity. Seasonal photographers and assistants are responsible for taking photographs, taking orders, and potentially developing/editing photos as well.What you’ll need: Portrait photography skills, photo editing skills, organizational skills (after all, no one wants mistakenly sent pictures of some other family’s kid sitting on Santa’s lap), customer service skills, and problem solving skills, because camera snafus while there’s a long line of people waiting to see Santa can be problematic. It also can’t hurt if you have a knack for getting toddlers to smile at just the right time for a lasting photo.Election WorkersThis is one of the more unusual ones on the list, in that you may not think of it as a â€Å"seasonal† job. But the fact is that every November there’s some kind of election going on in your town or district, and staff is needed to manage the voting process, check in voters, and ensure that election laws and best practices are being followed. Many polling places rely on volunteers, but some towns and cities hire poll workers to manage the crowds and ensure smooth voting and accurate reporting.What you’ll need: Strong organizational skills, and a solid sense of civic duty.Warehouse WorkerBehind the retail scen es, there are thousands of warehouse workers needed to make sure that goods are getting where they need to go throughout the holiday season, whether that’s store shelves or customer orders shipped directly. Companies like Amazon in particular bulk up its warehouse staff during the holiday season, in anticipation of keeping operations running at peak volume around the clock. Other top employers in this area include shipping companies like FedEx or UPS, which keep packages moving at a high volume to accommodate tight shipping deadlines and incredibly high demand.What you’ll need: The stamina to work while standing for long periods of time, as well as the ability to lift heavy objects. These jobs may also involve the use of heavy equipment to move freight.Delivery DriverWarehouses aren’t the only logistics centers that need extra help during the holidays. Companies typically hire extra drivers for the season, to accommodate the higher volume of packages going in an d out.What you’ll need: A valid driver’s license (and possibly a Commercial Driver’s License as well), a clean driving record, and excellent navigation and time management skills.Customer Service AssociateCustomer service is another major area where companies need extra help during the holiday season (and slightly beyond, to accommodate post-holiday issues with gifts). These seasonal employees may work on site or remotely via phone or internet chat to answer questions, help customers troubleshoot issues, and escalate as necessary. Customer service can be a round-the-clock proposition, so you can likely expect overnight, weekend, or holiday shifts.What you’ll need: A solid customer service resume. You’ll need customer service skills first and foremost, as well as tech skills like handling multi-line phones, recordkeeping software, and internet chat programs. You’ll also need strong problem-solving skills, as much of your time may be spent hel ping to diagnose and resolve problems for customers.Tax AssociateNo one really likes to think about the looming tax season while in holiday mode, but after the new year has passed and life goes back to normal, seasonal tax associates are in high demand. Tax preparation companies hire temporary employees to accommodate the demand from January through April. If you have a background in financial math and familiarity with the U.S. tax system, this can be a good gig for you in the post-holiday season.What you’ll need: Strong math and accounting skills, a bachelor’s degree in a related field, and familiarity with tax preparation software.If you’re looking for a part-time seasonal gig, you have lots of opportunities to match your skill set, interests, and availability. The retail-facing jobs are perennial favorites for a reason (consistency, plenty of jobs available), but if retail isn’t your thing, there are lot of other options.

Top 10 part-time holiday jobs this season

Top 10 part-time holiday jobs this season ‘Tis the season†¦to think about whether you want a seasonal holiday job this year. If you wait until the Black Friday ads are out and Starbucks unveils its holiday coffee cup designs to start thinking about what you want to do for your seasonal holiday job, it’s likely too late. So we’ve got some of the best part-time holiday gigs this year, to help you seize those early opportunities to make extra cash this holiday season. But before you get started, there are a few checklist items you should have ready, so that you’re ready to apply for jobs as they come up- because seasonal hiring can move awfully fast.Get your resume application-ready. Have your interview outfit ready to go. For a seasonal job, this may be more casual than the traditional dark suit. Whatever outfit you choose, it should be neat (no loose threads or weird hems), cleaned, and ready to go at a moment’s notice.Get in the right mindset. Holiday jobs are likely to demand your time during unconventional or inconvenient shifts. Make sure your mental expectations are aligned with a potentially hectic schedule that doesn’t leave you with a lot of free time or holiday down time.Let’s look at some of the top opportunities this holiday season, from the classic (retail) to less orthodox jobs you may not have considered.Retail Sales AssociateWhen you think of â€Å"seasonal part-time job,† you probably think of a role in a busy retail store, helping keep shelves stocked while hordes of holiday shoppers come through looking for the perfect gift. And that’s because it’s a perennial opportunity for people looking for temporary work over the holidays. You don’t need to commit to retail as a career for this kind of job, but it can also be a great experience-builder if you want to seek more retail opportunities in the future. This tends to be an â€Å"all hands on deck† kind of job. You may be tasked with assisting customers on the floor, completing sales as a cashier, or working behind the scenes with inventory, merchandising, and stocking- whatever needs doing to accommodate the holiday crowds. If this is the route you want to take, start with the big retailers (Target, WalMart, Kohl’s, etc.), but don’t be afraid to look at every store in your area and see if they have any â€Å"help wanted† notices popping up either in store or online.What you’ll need: A good retail resume, strong customer service skills to deal with every kind of customer imaginable, and time management skills. You may also be asked to work long or odd shifts throughout the holidays, so flexibility is key.Snow Removal Drivers/WorkersWe may still be firmly in autumn mode right now, but as the Starks tell us, winter is indeed coming. Many private snow removal companies and towns/cities are already looking ahead to the snowy season, hiring part-time and seasonal help to prepare for the winter’s storm s. This is less of an option if you live in, say, Florida, but if you live in an area that sees its share of snow and ice over the winter months, it can be a good option.What you’ll need: A valid driver’s license and the ability to handle heavy equipment like plows, sanding trucks, and sidewalk snow removal tools.Christmas Tree WorkersThe holiday season means Christmas tree sales, either at dedicated tree farms/garden centers, or big box stores that also sell trees (think Home Depot or Lowe’s). From Thanksgiving to Christmas, these employees help meet the influx of customers, selling and preparing trees for travel home, as well as selling and stocking other seasonal plants.What you’ll need: The ability to lift heavy objects, stand for long shifts, and work outdoors in varying conditions.Seasonal ActorsAnother classic seasonal job is playing Santa (if you’ve got the girth and the lap- beard is usually provided for you), or his entourage (think elves and Mrs. Claus). This job has been a mainstay of malls and department stores for decades and usually runs from Thanksgiving-ish through to Christmas. But Christmas actors aren’t the only ones who are needed on a seasonal basis- if you look early enough (say, September), there are also a lot of Halloween-themed jobs available, working in haunted houses or amusement parks as scary extras.What you’ll need: Acting skills, people skills, and customer service skills.Seasonal PhotographersAll the Santas and the elves come with a very important seasonal role: the photographer. Individual stores, malls, and events hire photographers every year to capture the holiday merriment for posterity. Seasonal photographers and assistants are responsible for taking photographs, taking orders, and potentially developing/editing photos as well.What you’ll need: Portrait photography skills, photo editing skills, organizational skills (after all, no one wants mistakenly sent pictures of some other family’s kid sitting on Santa’s lap), customer service skills, and problem solving skills, because camera snafus while there’s a long line of people waiting to see Santa can be problematic. It also can’t hurt if you have a knack for getting toddlers to smile at just the right time for a lasting photo.Election WorkersThis is one of the more unusual ones on the list, in that you may not think of it as a â€Å"seasonal† job. But the fact is that every November there’s some kind of election going on in your town or district, and staff is needed to manage the voting process, check in voters, and ensure that election laws and best practices are being followed. Many polling places rely on volunteers, but some towns and cities hire poll workers to manage the crowds and ensure smooth voting and accurate reporting.What you’ll need: Strong organizational skills, and a solid sense of civic duty.Warehouse WorkerBehind the retail scen es, there are thousands of warehouse workers needed to make sure that goods are getting where they need to go throughout the holiday season, whether that’s store shelves or customer orders shipped directly. Companies like Amazon in particular bulk up its warehouse staff during the holiday season, in anticipation of keeping operations running at peak volume around the clock. Other top employers in this area include shipping companies like FedEx or UPS, which keep packages moving at a high volume to accommodate tight shipping deadlines and incredibly high demand.What you’ll need: The stamina to work while standing for long periods of time, as well as the ability to lift heavy objects. These jobs may also involve the use of heavy equipment to move freight.Delivery DriverWarehouses aren’t the only logistics centers that need extra help during the holidays. Companies typically hire extra drivers for the season, to accommodate the higher volume of packages going in an d out.What you’ll need: A valid driver’s license (and possibly a Commercial Driver’s License as well), a clean driving record, and excellent navigation and time management skills.Customer Service AssociateCustomer service is another major area where companies need extra help during the holiday season (and slightly beyond, to accommodate post-holiday issues with gifts). These seasonal employees may work on site or remotely via phone or internet chat to answer questions, help customers troubleshoot issues, and escalate as necessary. Customer service can be a round-the-clock proposition, so you can likely expect overnight, weekend, or holiday shifts.What you’ll need: A solid customer service resume. You’ll need customer service skills first and foremost, as well as tech skills like handling multi-line phones, recordkeeping software, and internet chat programs. You’ll also need strong problem-solving skills, as much of your time may be spent hel ping to diagnose and resolve problems for customers.Tax AssociateNo one really likes to think about the looming tax season while in holiday mode, but after the new year has passed and life goes back to normal, seasonal tax associates are in high demand. Tax preparation companies hire temporary employees to accommodate the demand from January through April. If you have a background in financial math and familiarity with the U.S. tax system, this can be a good gig for you in the post-holiday season.What you’ll need: Strong math and accounting skills, a bachelor’s degree in a related field, and familiarity with tax preparation software.If you’re looking for a part-time seasonal gig, you have lots of opportunities to match your skill set, interests, and availability. The retail-facing jobs are perennial favorites for a reason (consistency, plenty of jobs available), but if retail isn’t your thing, there are lot of other options.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Underground space use with urban sustainability Essay

Underground space use with urban sustainability - Essay Example Underground Space Use with Urban Sustainability Moreover, city planners are faced with a huge task of ensuring that services in urban areas are not disrupted; despite the high number of people streaming to urban centers, the quality of life in cities has to remain unchanged. Moreover, today, there is increasing advocacy on sustainable developments especially with regard to built environment. With increasing awareness on the need to preserve the environment, people are demanding stringent sustainability measures in built environment. Therefore, city planners face a daunting task of deciding the best way to come up with city master plans that ensure sustainability. An approach that has remained untapped in the development of many cities; the approach  promises great opportunities for expansion of cities within sustainable limits is underground urban infrastructure development. Bobylev (2009, 1129) observed that, in order for investors to develop private housing, they require enough transport infrastructure and enough energy supply , which depends on the transport available in such cities. This calls for the need to have proper integration of urban infrastructure development and sustainable development in cities. Therefore, to ensure sustainability despite the growing of urban cities, underground urban development promises potential opportunities, if proper city master plans are prepared to highlight proper urban underground infrastructure designs. Chow et al (2) noted that the ability to maximize space in towns and urban cities would be the greatest challenge for engineers and architectures in the near future. One of the benefits of urban underground infrastructure is that it offers city planners opportunities and space to relocate infrastructure projects such as railway lines, roads, recreational facilities, stores, sports facilities among other amenities. The need for mass transportation services and modern infrastructural development requires new and innovative ways to use the available dwindling space in cities (Chow et al, 3). As a result, efficient use of underground space will ensure planners, developers, landowners and other parties have exciting and untapped opportunities to expand construction projects. Many cities have managed to save huge spaces by designing efficient underground master plans for their transport systems, which has helped not only in reducing congestion but also in maximizing utilization of space in cities. One of the best examples of the huge impacts of underground urban master plan is the London underground station, an underground facility that has managed not only to reduce traffic in the city but also has reshaped the city and utility of space to the best extent possible. The design and the emergence of the London underground station challenged the limits of engineering and city master planning across the globe. The station is an excellent benchmark of what would become of many cities in the future. Space is rapidly becoming scarce while demand for sustainability and the demand for transportation services have increased. Therefore, the London station is an excellent case of typical modernism (Wright, 2011). The tube as it is commonly known made it possible for people to travel between several stations within London at record speeds. As a result, people were no longer willing to live in the city but opted to live away from the city where they can spend a few minutes to get to London (Wright, 2011). T

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Hanover-Bates Chemical Corporation Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hanover-Bates Chemical Corporation - Case Study Example District 1, 2 and 7 performances got little profits as they surpassed their gross profit quote a little (Spiro, et. al, 2008). The performance of northeast district as compared to other districts is constantly low. Other districts performed better than the set target or a little low, while northeast district performed very low. The sale of the northeast district is high, but profits are low if it is accessed in comparison with northeast central (Spiro, et. al, 2008). So, in totality, northeast district is continuously performing low as compared with other districts. Jim Sprague is quite less experienced as the new sales manager of the northeast district. However, the company’s management has trust in his skills. Hank Carver, an experienced and appreciative sales representative is interested to quit his job. The northeast district has poor performance and is unable to meet the gross profit quote. The district is not capable take benefit of potential future accounts. Their sales representative pay expenses are higher as compared to other districts. The sales representatives of northeast district have elevated own selling operating expenses. Northeast district is short of paying attention to major and medium ranged accounts (Spiro, et. al, 2008). Management’s role in improving poor performance in the northeast district is very crucial. The management should support Jim in his task by appointing supporting experienced assistant. There should be a biyearly analysis of the district in comparison with other districts. There should be incentives for outclass performers to motivate sales reps. The management should be revise its standards for the poor performing districts. Jim Sprague should install a monitoring system for the evaluation of expenses related to sales representatives (Spiro, et. al, 2008). He should conduct meetings to inform the sales reps about their elevated salaries in comparison to the sales reps of other districts and

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The planet Mars Essay Example for Free

The planet Mars Essay The atmosphere above the surface of Mars is about 100 times less dense than the atmosphere of Earth. The Martian atmosphere is dense enough to support a weather system that includes clouds and winds. According to experts, Mars roller coaster-like weather is more chaotic and unpredictable than scientists first thought. At times, the sky can appear pink and cloudless, filled with windblown dust raised from the rusty Martian surface. Tremendous dust storms sometimes rage over the entire planet. Most of the dust storms occur during the perihelion when Mars is closest to the sun. In addition, the dust storms continue to dominate the atmosphere and climate during the aphelion when Mars is furthest from the sun. Perihelion and aphelion occur every Mars year, which equals two Earth years. (Mars Atmosphere, 2002) Mars is much colder than Earth. The average temperature on Mars is about -80  °F (-60  °C).Temperatures at the Martian surface vary from as low as about -195  °F (-125  °C) near the poles during the winter to as much as 70  °F (20  °C) at midday near the equator. (Mars Science, 2000) These shifts in climate are caused by three factors: Mars thin atmosphere, its elliptical orbit around the sun, and strong climatic interactions between dust and water ice clouds in the atmosphere. Mars atmosphere is so thin that it weighs less than 1 percent of Earths atmosphere. Because Mars atmosphere is so paper-thin and there are no oceans to store up heat from the sun, the planets temperatures respond more quickly and intensely to surface changes and atmospheric heating by the sun. There are also much larger annual changes in sunlight falling on Mars than on Earth, because Mars distance from the sun varies by 20 percent in its orbit around the sun every two years. (Mars Science, 2000) Mars has many of the kinds of surface features that are common on Earth. These include plains, canyons, and volcanoes. Overall, craters occur throughout the surface of Mars, while they are rare on Earth. In addition, fine-grained reddish dust covers almost all the Martian surface. Many regions of Mars consist of flat, low-lying plains. Most of these areas are in the northern hemisphere. They may be so smooth because they were  built up from deposits of sediment. There is evidence that water once flowed across the Martian surface. The water would have tended to collect in the lowest spots on the planet and thus would have deposited sediments there. Near the equator of Mars, there are is a string of canyons known as Valles Marineris. Scientists believe that they were formed by the crust of the surface being stretched and ultimately split. Volcanoes appear throughout the planet. Many of these volcanoes resemble volcanoes that are in Hawaii. Their slopes rise gradually and they are referred to as shield volcanoes. They were formed from eruptions of lavas that can flow for long distances before solidifying. (The Surface of Mars, 2002) Martian craters are similar to craters on Earths moon. The craters have deep, bowl-shaped floors and raised rims. Some large craters have central peaks that form when the crater floor rebounds upward after an impact. Much of the surface of the southern hemisphere is extremely old, and it contains many craters. Other parts of the surface, especially in the northern hemisphere, are younger and thus have fewer craters. (Mars, 2002) References The Surface of Mars. (2002). Canyons and plains. [Online]. Available: http://www.nasm.si.edu/ceps/etp/mars/surface.html Mars Atmosphere. (2002). [Online]. Available: http://chapters.marssociety.org/polska/mars_atmosphere.html

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Vietnam War History :: essays research papers

Sometime between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200, the intermingling of the Red River Delta's early inhabitants resulted in a distinct Vietnamese people. Virtually from the outset, the Vietnamese were ruled by the Chinese, and they would continue to be until A.D. 938. During the centuries of Chinese control over the Red River Delta, two independent states rose to power in what is now central and southern VietNam. From the first to the sixth centuries, the kingdom of Funan held sway aver the Mekong Delta and the region that is now Cambodia; the kingdom was over thrown by the Mon-Khmer, who founded the Cambodian empire. Along the coast of central VietNam, the kingdom of Champa ruled from the late second century until the 15th, when it was conquered by the Vietnamese, who expanded steadily southward after expelling the Chinese. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, the Vietnamese would wrest the Mekong Delta from Cambodia, essentially completing the formation of their country. Of the more than a dozen dynasties that have ruled independent VietNam, three are considered "great." The first was the Ly (1009-1225), whose rulers established Hanoi as their capital in the year 1010, naming it Thang Long, the City of the Soaring Dragon. (It was not until 1831 that the name Hanoi-City in a Bend of the River-came into use.) The Ly built new roads, dikes, and canals, and they vigorously promoted agriculture. In 1044 - 22 years before William the Conqueror invaded England the Ly founded VietNam's first postal service. The Ly dynasty ended in overthrow by the Tran, who established the second great dynasty (1225-1400). In 1407, the Chinese reconquered VietNam, but this time their rule lasted only two decades. In 1428, they were driven out by the Vietnamese hero who established the third great dynasty, Le Loi. The Le dynasty, which held power until 1524, introduced a series of remarkable reforms. Arts, literature, and education were promoted. Large landowners were forced to distribute their holdings to the land less. Legal reforms gave women nearly equal rights with men. In the 17th and 18th centuries, VietNam was split by warring factions. Northern VietNam was ruled by the powerful Trinh Lords, the south controlled by lords of the Nguyen line. In 1786, three brothers, the Tay Son, briefly reunited the country, but even as they fought to depose the Trinh and Nguyen lords, their empire began fragmenting.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Rush of Amphetamine Use: the Need for Speed

The Rush of Amphetamine Use: The Need for Speed Over the last century, Adderall and Ritalin have transitioned from respectable medications into designer drugs. Chemist L. Edeleano developed amphetamines in the late 1800’s primarily for respiratory ailments, but in time physicians noticed additional behavioral effects. Now, people that are diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD, ADD) and narcolepsy use amphetamines to alert and focused (CESAR).According to the Princeton University online dictionary, amphetamines are â€Å"a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression. † These prescription medications are some of the most popular and widely abused drugs among teens today, and are depended on for better performance in school, on sports field and are even used to aid weight loss. Because amphetamines and similar drugs reduce hunger, inc rease concentration, raise self esteem, and boost performance they appeal to insecure young people.These miracle drugs are most often abused by college and high school students because the medicine provides a sense of security that most users long for. Girls in particular use amphetamines such as Adderall, Ritalin, or Vyvanse for weight loss purposes. If a person takes too many lisdexamfetamines (a chemical like amphetamines in Ritalin or Vyvanse) or amphetamines, his body can build a tolerance which can cause increased dependency. The dangerous use of these drugs without the supervision of a medical doctor can be fatal.Like any other drug, amphetamines can become an addiction that can only be overcome with the assistance of a trained physician. Scientists designed amphetamines to be helpful for those with learning disabilities or mental disorders; however, the abuse of these chemicals causes psychological dependence, physical deterioration, and spiritual destruction. According to e xpert medical journal writer Ellen Bailey, when Dr. Heinrich Hoffman discovered learning disabilities like ADD and ADHD, parents were overjoyed and relieved that there was something they could actually do to help their children.Sir George F. explained to parents through his written lectures that it was not their fault that their children had attained uncontrollable behavior (2). Medical intervention could help, but the temptation to abuse the drugs followed the cure. Finding these drugs can be as easy as finding rock candy in a candy store. Desperate people who want amphetamines find â€Å"hole in the wall† doctors that will give them the prescriptions they need. Doctors who use these methods of treatment, for the most part, have their own practice firms and give the people what they want – not need.Because people love the doctors, they have high satisfactory ratings. Technically they are doing their job, and therefore are not reported for writing fraudulent prescripti ons. There are several ways to take amphetamines; a few ways are: â€Å"ingested orally, crushed and snorted, dissolved in water and injected, or smoked (inhalation of the vaporized drug)† (CESAR). Some students use amphetamines as a shortcut to an â€Å"A† on a test or an easy way out of studying. What is so special about these drugs? What makes them appealing to students and adults without learning disabilities?Achievement through drug abuse is common; athletes use steroids to enhance their performance, and people who suffer from depression have â€Å"happy-pills† to help them be more at ease with themselves. Those who are compelled to over-achieve often use amphetamines. Because of intense peer pressure and a compulsion to achieve, students then fall into the trap of amphetamine abuse in an attempt to cheat the system. Amphetamines do help students and people with learning disabilities by allowing them to focus better and work more effectively.People with ADD and ADHD are missing certain chemicals in their brains that drugs like Vyvanse and Adderall can help. Margaret Lahey and Shari Rosen  from the Bamford-Lahey Children’s Foundation explain that the part of the brain that controls concentration uses a chemical called dopamine. It is an important neurotransmitter that does not work properly for people with learning disorders (Par 9). Adderall and other amphetamines supply this chemical for those people so that they are able to function as normally as possible.The outcome is the ability to function without restriction. Some suffering from anorexia nervosa have discovered another abuse of amphetamines in the form of dieting pills. Leading scientific experts Dr. John E. Blundell and Micah B. Leshem agree that hunger is severely suppressed while using amphetamines. In a recent study, the two scientists determined the following: The effects upon food intake of three dose levels of fenfluramine and amphetamine were compared in rats with bilateral or unilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus. †¦.At 8 weeks after operation amphetamine anorexia was significantly diminished in bilaterally lesioned animals whereas fenfluramine anorexia was significantly enhanced. Further tests carried out at 14 and 20 weeks after operation showed that amphetamine regained its anorexic potency in lesioned animals, while the enhanced potency of fenfluramine remained. The results are consistent with the belief that these two anorexic agents operate through quite separate sites and mechanisms of action. (Par 1) Because of the severity of the weight loss, it is extremely easy to fall into a deep psychological obsession and addiction.According to student John Monroe, diagnosed last year with ADD, within the first two weeks of taking Adderall, he lost a shocking ten pounds. He realized quickly how dangerous his weight loss would be if he continued taking the medications. Even though weight loss is not a motive for some taking th e medications, the side effect still occurs. However, abusers sometimes take too much too often without even knowing it. Overdose can lead to hair loss, loss of menstruation in women, anemia, euphoria, body twitches, and even heart failure.Amphetamine abuse hurts you in more than the physical level; but also at the spiritual level. When sin entered the heart of man, so did the desire for self-acceptance. With today’s standards, some of the hardest trials a person can go through are perfectionist tendencies, fitting in with the word, and acceptance of self. If abusers have feelings of dislike towards themselves, their minds, or their bodies and do not feel perfect the way they are, they are telling God that He made a mistake in making them.God made each and every person in his image (New International Version Bible, Gen 1. 27); some people have difficulties learning while others do not. The rise of amphetamine usage in 12th graders is especially shocking. According to a recent study from the University of Maryland, 15% of 12th graders were using prescription amphetamines for nonmedical reasons (Cesar FAX). The graph below reveals the percentages of 12th graders using amphetamines to the usage of narcotics and where the students attained them. (Cesar FAX)An assumed argument against whether amphetamines should be legalized is that the medicine is not harmful to anyone if used in moderation and under a doctor’s supervision. If test results from a person without a learning disability reveal normal blood and behavior levels, that should be enough to make doctors realize that, if used under supervision and in moderation, the drug is safe. The medicine is more effective and safer for keeping a person focused and on target than smoking, and it gives the same buzz alcohol can give but without the risk of getting drunk.The danger is still deeper than mood swings or behavior problems. As stated before, Lahey explains that people who have learning disabilitie s have a dysfunctional neurotransmitter call dopamine (Par 9). In simpler terms, it means that the stimulation part of the brain is missing, and as a result, the brain automatically tries to find outside methods to release the chemicals it is lacking. People  with ADD have to fuel up their brains with things like physical activities, movement, and always doing something that stimulates their brains.Such impulsive behavior is not a conscious decision that people  with ADD/HD make; they really cannot help themselves. The behavior becomes a reflex action and they act in a hyperactive manner. The amphetamines help people with learning disorders like ADD and ADHD by supplying the dopamine that their brains are missing. If a person without such learning disabilities has too much dopamine, his or her body can go into overdrive and can create a resistance, causing the brain to need more; it becomes an addiction.One addiction can lead to a door of temptation that swings wide open for oth er drugs. Once one drug is dismissed by saying, â€Å"Oh, it is just a onetime thing†, the drug habit becomes a â€Å"onetime thing. † God provided doctors who can help a person with learning disabilities attain a sense of normalness and those without, He gave teachers, parents, and other people who can support them though any trial that may come God will provide for a person’s needs without using the easy way out and using counterfeit concentration or dieting habits. What many people fail to think about before taking amphetamines without prescription are the consequences. It is not worth losing family, friends, a job, or school and is certainly not worth the consequences of being charged with illegal drug use. Illegal amphetamine use may seem small and insignificant, but once one is addicted, it is nearly impossible to get rid of the ghosts of one’s past. The problem is not the medication, but how mankind uses or abuses the medication. Works Cited Blunde ll, John E. , Micah B. Leshem. Central Action of Anorexic Agents: Effects of Amphetamine and Fenfluramine in Rats with Lateral Hypothalamic Lesions. † ScienceDirect – Home. Elsevier B. V. , Sept. 1974. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. Cesar FAX. â€Å"Friends and Family Are Most Common Source of Prescription Amphetamines and Narcotics Used Nonmedically by 12th Graders. † CESAR (Center for Substance Abuse Research). University of Maryland, 2 Feb. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. Ellen, Bailey, and Carson-Dewitt Rosalyn. â€Å"Behavior Drugs & Children: An Overview. † Point of View Reference Center. EBSCO, 2009.Web. Oct. -Nov. 2010. Lahey, Margaret, and Shari Rosen. â€Å"Neurotransmitters and Learning, Memory and Developmental Disorders. †Ã‚  Children's Disability Information. Children's Disabilities &Special Needs Information. Web. Oct. -Nov. 2010. Monroe, John S. â€Å"Having ADD. † Telephone interview. 9 Oct. 2010. Princeton University. â€Å"Amphetamine Defini tion. †Ã‚  WordnetWeb. Princeton University. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. University of Maryland. â€Å"Amphetamines. †Ã‚  CESAR (Center for Substance Abuse Research). University of Maryland, 2 May 2005. Web. 27 Nov. 2010.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Leaders Are Born Not Made

ESSAY TITLE: LEADERS ARE BORN NOT MADE AUTHOR: AYODELE OLATOYE SUMMARY: The essay refutes the viewpoint that leaders are born not made, and seeks to establish through valid arguments, illustrations and documented evidence that leaders are actually made and not born WORD COUNT: 1920 LEADERS ARE BORN NOT MADE Folklore has lulled us into believing that some people are born leaders while others are not.Regardless of tribe, ethnicity or race, most people can trace their origins back to a monarchical or feudal system where the offspring of the reigning family found themselves thrust into leadership positions regardless of their inclinations to rule or not. To further impress this upon our collective psyches, the legends of such royal ancestors are interwoven with thrilling notions of romantic adventure and grandeur, and we unwittingly find ourselves mentally acquiescing to the untruth that some people are born to lead while others are destined to merely follow.History has however proven ot herwise; leaders are made not born. The fall of monarchical systems of government occurred slowly but surely over centuries, as it became apparent to all that leadership is to be earned, and is not a birthright. Nobility was no longer a question of bloodline but of courage, strength of character and the ability to motivate your peers to follow you in achieving a common goal. Some critics would argue that the most prominent features of leaders such as courage, charisma and strength are personality traits which are inherited and cannot be taught (Colleen 2012).Research has however shown that the human personality is extremely malleable, and under the right tutelage and exposure to carefully calibrated exercises, leadership attributes can be developed by anyone who is willing to invest the required amount of time and energy to achieve these results (Parks 2005). It has also been argued that another key requirement for leadership is pleasant good looks which are an inherited feature (Co lleen 2012).This is however an unsubstantiated assumption and perhaps is only relevant in the realm of politics where the ability to assume an office is often indicative of a strong political machinery backing you, and not your ability to lead and motivate. True leadership is not an office but a lifestyle. Mahatma Ghandi may not have qualified as a prospect for GQ’s cover page but he is undisputedly one of the most influential leaders in modern history. Perhaps it would be instructive to clarify who a leader is before proceeding further. ‘A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a certain goal’ (Merriam-Webster n. . ). Leaders exist in almost every facet and sphere of life we may choose to examine; the family unit, schools, religious organisations, business institutions and states. The manner in which they influence people varies from individual to individual. One of the areas which has witnessed the most review and analysi s is the business environment, where the efficacy of a leader could determine whether an organisation thrives or goes under, and with it the fates of staff, shareholders and other stakeholders whose livelihoods are inexorably linked to the business.We will therefore restrict our review to the attributes of a successful business leader and an analysis of whether such traits are inherited or cultivated. One key trait which most of the literature written on great business leaders agree on as a required characteristic is excellent communication skills. A leader must be able to clearly communicate his vision in compelling terms that will motivate his team to follow him into the thick of the fray, be it the floor of the New York Stock exchange or into the last quarter of the year where the sales figures will determine whether the organisation sinks or swims.Is the ability to communicate convincingly an inborn trait? History would lead us to believe otherwise. According to folklore, Demost henes was the most famed of Greek orators whose first attempt at public speaking earned him the derision of his peers for his efforts (Horne 2007). Through dedication and the proper tutelage, he overcame a speech handicap and eventually became a voice that all of Greece respected. In the modern world, the abundance of voice coaches and public speaking training material points to the fact that excellent communication skills can be learnt.In addition, as organisations continue to grow in size and staffing, an increasing amount of the intra-organisational communication is written and no longer verbal. CEOs communicate their vision and the company’s direction to the entire staff via written emails. Though some critics may maintain that good communication skills are inherited, it is unlikely that even the strongest proponents of this view will believe that the ability to type concise emails is an inborn talent. Another important leadership trait is passion; passion is infectious n d galvanises those around you into pouring their energy into the goals you have set. It is obviously apparent that some people are naturally more passionate than others and this is inarguably an inborn personality trait. As a leader however, you are not required to be passionate about every single thing; you however must be passionate about your job, your organisation and the objectives you have set. In the book ‘Who Am I; The Quest for Entrepreneurial Identity’, Charles Y. Murnieks states ‘†¦ ntrepreneurial passion is significantly related to the setting of proximal goals’ (Murnieks 2008). This suggests that any leader who is fiercely committed to a goal inadvertently becomes passionate about it. Goal setting and focus is a trait which can definitely be taught and are the precursors to the passion that a great leader needs. On the other hand, being a passionate person in a general sense is no guarantee of great leadership. On the contrary, passion tha t is not built on predetermined goals may lead to emotional decisions which could destroy an organisation.A third important leadership trait is courage. In the course of running an organisation, a leader must have the courage to take decisions which could either make or break that organisation. Whether it is choosing the sectors to invest businesses capital in or selling off an ailing subsidiary, his courage will constantly be put to test. He must also have the courage to face his staff with candour and give unpleasant feedback to an employee who may not be pulling his weight.A study by Daniel Goleman surprisingly revealed that fearlessness, amongst others, is often an inherited trait (Goleman 1986). It appears that some children are born with a higher threshold of fear and risk aversion than others. An insensitivity to fear however does not necessarily make a courageous leader. In the article ‘The Meaning of Courage’, Richard Zinbarg states ‘In my view, however, we cannot be courageous or strong in situations in which we have no fear or anxiety whatsoever’ (Zinbarg 2010). Courage is the quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain, etc. despite anxiety or fear’ (Rachman 1978). This thus means that the quality of courage which one needs to have to be an effective leader is not ingrained at birth, but rather is developed over time by the habit of constantly facing ones fears. Many leadership training organisations teach this trait with rock climbing or mountain climbing exercises, which will gradually help the students face down their fears and take challenges head on.The military also recruit young men and women into their ranks and through trainings, exercises and exposure to real armed conflict situations, gradually shape them into courageous combat ready soldiers. This is perhaps one of the reasons why the American people had until recently only voted ex-military political candidates into office; they naturally believed that these men would have cultivated the traits of strength and fearlessness during their time in the military. Integrity is another important attribute of a good leader.The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines integrity as the ‘firm adherence to a code of especially moral or artistic values (Merriam-Webster n. d. ). Are some people born with integrity whilst others are born with a propensity for deceit and inconsistency? Research shows that children growing up are prone to adopt the moral code and values which their models exhibit from birth to about the age of 7, when they begin to observe and appraise the results of actions on subjects as well as the attendant repercussions.They then begin to form their own value system which continues to be shaped throughout their lives (Thomas 1993). Integrity is a learned attribute and leaders can therefore not be born with it; it is an acquired trait. A review of the biographies of great leaders often refer to defining moments in their lives where experiences occurred that shaped and defined their moral codes for the rest of their lives. One of the greatest examples of this is the story of President Abraham Lincoln, fondly known as ‘Honest Abe’ by the people of America.He exposed himself at a very early age to character moulding literature that extolled the virtues of integrity and individual struggle, thereby internalising the accounts of other great men and consciously adopting their moral codes (Carwardine 2003). The mere fact that peer pressure, lack of a proper family structure and environmental/ community factors have been identified as three of the main contributing factors to teen crime (Muhammad 2008) establish that integrity or the lack of it is a learned behaviour and not an inherited trait.This is one of the reasons why juvenile corrective authorities always seek foster parents for adolescents whom they perceive to be in danger of being corrupted by their soci ety. The human race has made exceptional leaps in the past century on numerous frontiers; medicine, law, science, technology, and most of the other endeavours we have focused our mental energy and resources on. In the business world, the number of registered companies (either with physical or virtual offices) is rising quickly and with it the portfolio and profile of its owners and managers.The leaders of these advancements and breakthroughs did not let questions of their genetic predisposition to leadership deter them from achieving the feats they have accomplished. Proposing that leadership is a birthright and therefore the exclusive right of a privileged few would be encouraging scores of people to abdicate their natural duty of being the best version of themselves they possibly can, encouraging them to ignore the plethora of opportunities to lead and make a difference, encouraging them to give up at the first sign of difficulty.The last and arguably the most important trait of a great leader is faith; faith in his ability to lead his team and actually make a difference. It is only by understanding that great leaders are made and not born that we can have the faith to put ourselves through the gruelling process it takes to shape our minds and bodies, and thereby become the exceptional leaders that we all can be.Bibliography Carwardine, Richard. Lincoln. London, 2003. Colleen, Sharen. â€Å"Leaders are Born not Made. † Thinking is Hard Work, 2012. Goleman, Daniel. â€Å"New York Times. † New York Times, 2 December 1986. Horne, C. F. Heritage History. History Curriculum Homeschool, 2007. Merriam-Webster. â€Å"Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. † http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/integrity. Muhammad, Ali. Youth Crime; Causes and Remedies. 2008. Murnieks, Charles Y. Whom Am I; The Quest for Entrepreneural Identity. 2008. Parks, Sharon Daloz. â€Å"Leadership Can Be Taught: A Bold Approach for a Complex World. † 2005: 5-6. Rachman, Stanley. Fear and Courage. 1978. Thomas, Laurence. Morality and Psychological Development. Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1993. Zinbarg, Richard. The Meaning of Courage. 2010. Leaders Are Born Not Made ESSAY TITLE: LEADERS ARE BORN NOT MADE AUTHOR: AYODELE OLATOYE SUMMARY: The essay refutes the viewpoint that leaders are born not made, and seeks to establish through valid arguments, illustrations and documented evidence that leaders are actually made and not born WORD COUNT: 1920 LEADERS ARE BORN NOT MADE Folklore has lulled us into believing that some people are born leaders while others are not.Regardless of tribe, ethnicity or race, most people can trace their origins back to a monarchical or feudal system where the offspring of the reigning family found themselves thrust into leadership positions regardless of their inclinations to rule or not. To further impress this upon our collective psyches, the legends of such royal ancestors are interwoven with thrilling notions of romantic adventure and grandeur, and we unwittingly find ourselves mentally acquiescing to the untruth that some people are born to lead while others are destined to merely follow.History has however proven ot herwise; leaders are made not born. The fall of monarchical systems of government occurred slowly but surely over centuries, as it became apparent to all that leadership is to be earned, and is not a birthright. Nobility was no longer a question of bloodline but of courage, strength of character and the ability to motivate your peers to follow you in achieving a common goal. Some critics would argue that the most prominent features of leaders such as courage, charisma and strength are personality traits which are inherited and cannot be taught (Colleen 2012).Research has however shown that the human personality is extremely malleable, and under the right tutelage and exposure to carefully calibrated exercises, leadership attributes can be developed by anyone who is willing to invest the required amount of time and energy to achieve these results (Parks 2005). It has also been argued that another key requirement for leadership is pleasant good looks which are an inherited feature (Co lleen 2012).This is however an unsubstantiated assumption and perhaps is only relevant in the realm of politics where the ability to assume an office is often indicative of a strong political machinery backing you, and not your ability to lead and motivate. True leadership is not an office but a lifestyle. Mahatma Ghandi may not have qualified as a prospect for GQ’s cover page but he is undisputedly one of the most influential leaders in modern history. Perhaps it would be instructive to clarify who a leader is before proceeding further. ‘A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a certain goal’ (Merriam-Webster n. . ). Leaders exist in almost every facet and sphere of life we may choose to examine; the family unit, schools, religious organisations, business institutions and states. The manner in which they influence people varies from individual to individual. One of the areas which has witnessed the most review and analysi s is the business environment, where the efficacy of a leader could determine whether an organisation thrives or goes under, and with it the fates of staff, shareholders and other stakeholders whose livelihoods are inexorably linked to the business.We will therefore restrict our review to the attributes of a successful business leader and an analysis of whether such traits are inherited or cultivated. One key trait which most of the literature written on great business leaders agree on as a required characteristic is excellent communication skills. A leader must be able to clearly communicate his vision in compelling terms that will motivate his team to follow him into the thick of the fray, be it the floor of the New York Stock exchange or into the last quarter of the year where the sales figures will determine whether the organisation sinks or swims.Is the ability to communicate convincingly an inborn trait? History would lead us to believe otherwise. According to folklore, Demost henes was the most famed of Greek orators whose first attempt at public speaking earned him the derision of his peers for his efforts (Horne 2007). Through dedication and the proper tutelage, he overcame a speech handicap and eventually became a voice that all of Greece respected. In the modern world, the abundance of voice coaches and public speaking training material points to the fact that excellent communication skills can be learnt.In addition, as organisations continue to grow in size and staffing, an increasing amount of the intra-organisational communication is written and no longer verbal. CEOs communicate their vision and the company’s direction to the entire staff via written emails. Though some critics may maintain that good communication skills are inherited, it is unlikely that even the strongest proponents of this view will believe that the ability to type concise emails is an inborn talent. Another important leadership trait is passion; passion is infectious n d galvanises those around you into pouring their energy into the goals you have set. It is obviously apparent that some people are naturally more passionate than others and this is inarguably an inborn personality trait. As a leader however, you are not required to be passionate about every single thing; you however must be passionate about your job, your organisation and the objectives you have set. In the book ‘Who Am I; The Quest for Entrepreneurial Identity’, Charles Y. Murnieks states ‘†¦ ntrepreneurial passion is significantly related to the setting of proximal goals’ (Murnieks 2008). This suggests that any leader who is fiercely committed to a goal inadvertently becomes passionate about it. Goal setting and focus is a trait which can definitely be taught and are the precursors to the passion that a great leader needs. On the other hand, being a passionate person in a general sense is no guarantee of great leadership. On the contrary, passion tha t is not built on predetermined goals may lead to emotional decisions which could destroy an organisation.A third important leadership trait is courage. In the course of running an organisation, a leader must have the courage to take decisions which could either make or break that organisation. Whether it is choosing the sectors to invest businesses capital in or selling off an ailing subsidiary, his courage will constantly be put to test. He must also have the courage to face his staff with candour and give unpleasant feedback to an employee who may not be pulling his weight.A study by Daniel Goleman surprisingly revealed that fearlessness, amongst others, is often an inherited trait (Goleman 1986). It appears that some children are born with a higher threshold of fear and risk aversion than others. An insensitivity to fear however does not necessarily make a courageous leader. In the article ‘The Meaning of Courage’, Richard Zinbarg states ‘In my view, however, we cannot be courageous or strong in situations in which we have no fear or anxiety whatsoever’ (Zinbarg 2010). Courage is the quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain, etc. despite anxiety or fear’ (Rachman 1978). This thus means that the quality of courage which one needs to have to be an effective leader is not ingrained at birth, but rather is developed over time by the habit of constantly facing ones fears. Many leadership training organisations teach this trait with rock climbing or mountain climbing exercises, which will gradually help the students face down their fears and take challenges head on.The military also recruit young men and women into their ranks and through trainings, exercises and exposure to real armed conflict situations, gradually shape them into courageous combat ready soldiers. This is perhaps one of the reasons why the American people had until recently only voted ex-military political candidates into office; they naturally believed that these men would have cultivated the traits of strength and fearlessness during their time in the military. Integrity is another important attribute of a good leader.The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines integrity as the ‘firm adherence to a code of especially moral or artistic values (Merriam-Webster n. d. ). Are some people born with integrity whilst others are born with a propensity for deceit and inconsistency? Research shows that children growing up are prone to adopt the moral code and values which their models exhibit from birth to about the age of 7, when they begin to observe and appraise the results of actions on subjects as well as the attendant repercussions.They then begin to form their own value system which continues to be shaped throughout their lives (Thomas 1993). Integrity is a learned attribute and leaders can therefore not be born with it; it is an acquired trait. A review of the biographies of great leaders often refer to defining moments in their lives where experiences occurred that shaped and defined their moral codes for the rest of their lives. One of the greatest examples of this is the story of President Abraham Lincoln, fondly known as ‘Honest Abe’ by the people of America.He exposed himself at a very early age to character moulding literature that extolled the virtues of integrity and individual struggle, thereby internalising the accounts of other great men and consciously adopting their moral codes (Carwardine 2003). The mere fact that peer pressure, lack of a proper family structure and environmental/ community factors have been identified as three of the main contributing factors to teen crime (Muhammad 2008) establish that integrity or the lack of it is a learned behaviour and not an inherited trait.This is one of the reasons why juvenile corrective authorities always seek foster parents for adolescents whom they perceive to be in danger of being corrupted by their soci ety. The human race has made exceptional leaps in the past century on numerous frontiers; medicine, law, science, technology, and most of the other endeavours we have focused our mental energy and resources on. In the business world, the number of registered companies (either with physical or virtual offices) is rising quickly and with it the portfolio and profile of its owners and managers.The leaders of these advancements and breakthroughs did not let questions of their genetic predisposition to leadership deter them from achieving the feats they have accomplished. Proposing that leadership is a birthright and therefore the exclusive right of a privileged few would be encouraging scores of people to abdicate their natural duty of being the best version of themselves they possibly can, encouraging them to ignore the plethora of opportunities to lead and make a difference, encouraging them to give up at the first sign of difficulty.The last and arguably the most important trait of a great leader is faith; faith in his ability to lead his team and actually make a difference. It is only by understanding that great leaders are made and not born that we can have the faith to put ourselves through the gruelling process it takes to shape our minds and bodies, and thereby become the exceptional leaders that we all can be.Bibliography Carwardine, Richard. Lincoln. London, 2003. Colleen, Sharen. â€Å"Leaders are Born not Made. † Thinking is Hard Work, 2012. Goleman, Daniel. â€Å"New York Times. † New York Times, 2 December 1986. Horne, C. F. Heritage History. History Curriculum Homeschool, 2007. Merriam-Webster. â€Å"Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. † http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/integrity. Muhammad, Ali. Youth Crime; Causes and Remedies. 2008. Murnieks, Charles Y. Whom Am I; The Quest for Entrepreneural Identity. 2008. Parks, Sharon Daloz. â€Å"Leadership Can Be Taught: A Bold Approach for a Complex World. † 2005: 5-6. Rachman, Stanley. Fear and Courage. 1978. Thomas, Laurence. Morality and Psychological Development. Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1993. Zinbarg, Richard. The Meaning of Courage. 2010.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Free Essays on To Die Or Not To Die

To Die or Not To Die For as long as I can remember there has been much controversy surrounding the death penalty. Many feel that nobody should have the right to decide who lives, and who dies. I personally feel that when someone commits a heinous crime, they alone are choosing death, not the jury. Every once in a while when I hear about a murder, I think about how traumatized and forever changed the lives of those involved are. I also ponder why our tax dollars contribute to the well-being of criminals on death row. But most of all, I think about the fact that a person who takes away another person’s life does not deserve to live. An obsessed ex-husband kills his ex-wife’s current husband, because he feels that if he cannot have her, then no one can. This woman’s life will never be the same. This woman will never get her husband back, not to mention her life. A parent whose child has been ruthlessly murdered as a result of a kidnapping gone wrong will never see his child grow old. The agony of that child’s death will be with them forever. Or how about a teller, who during a bank robbery, witnessed the bank’s security officer getting shot in the head because he could not find the safe key soon enough. Will she ever be able to walk into a bank again, without having a memory flash of that awful day? Probably not. These are all people, whose lives will forever be changed, unfortunately not for the better. Another element that infuriates me is that our tax dollars contribute to keeping murderers alive in prison. There are incarcerated people who have better lives than hard-working, law-abiding, contributing citizens in our society. A woman, whose husband left her and her three children for another woman, is resorted to working two jobs. Even then, she and her three children can barely make ends meet each month. Where is the fairness in that? Think about how much more money would be going to schools and e... Free Essays on To Die Or Not To Die Free Essays on To Die Or Not To Die To Die or Not To Die For as long as I can remember there has been much controversy surrounding the death penalty. Many feel that nobody should have the right to decide who lives, and who dies. I personally feel that when someone commits a heinous crime, they alone are choosing death, not the jury. Every once in a while when I hear about a murder, I think about how traumatized and forever changed the lives of those involved are. I also ponder why our tax dollars contribute to the well-being of criminals on death row. But most of all, I think about the fact that a person who takes away another person’s life does not deserve to live. An obsessed ex-husband kills his ex-wife’s current husband, because he feels that if he cannot have her, then no one can. This woman’s life will never be the same. This woman will never get her husband back, not to mention her life. A parent whose child has been ruthlessly murdered as a result of a kidnapping gone wrong will never see his child grow old. The agony of that child’s death will be with them forever. Or how about a teller, who during a bank robbery, witnessed the bank’s security officer getting shot in the head because he could not find the safe key soon enough. Will she ever be able to walk into a bank again, without having a memory flash of that awful day? Probably not. These are all people, whose lives will forever be changed, unfortunately not for the better. Another element that infuriates me is that our tax dollars contribute to keeping murderers alive in prison. There are incarcerated people who have better lives than hard-working, law-abiding, contributing citizens in our society. A woman, whose husband left her and her three children for another woman, is resorted to working two jobs. Even then, she and her three children can barely make ends meet each month. Where is the fairness in that? Think about how much more money would be going to schools and e...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Memorable Funny Quotes From Tommy Boy

Memorable Funny Quotes From Tommy Boy Tommy Boy has some knee-slapping funny scenes. One of the funniest scenes in the movie is when Tommy struggles to change his clothes in an airplane restroom. Here are some memorable quotes from Tommy Boy that are guaranteed to make you laugh. The humor may seem unoriginal to some, but Tommy Boy does make the viewer laugh with abandon. Savor the comedy in these memorable quotes from . Tommy I can get a good look at a T-bone by sticking my head up a bulls ass, but Id rather take a butchers word for it.[hugging a stranger] I passed. I wish wed known each other... this is a little awkward.God, youre gonna remember this for the rest of your life. Cant believe youve never been cow tipping before.[talking like a toddler] Him too fwaid to get out, hes just a wittle guy.Apparently they give a lot fewer D-pluses than D-minuses. Its not a grade they like to give out.Oh, man, thats cold! Im a maniac, maniac on the floor. And Im dancing like Ive never danced before...R.T., I lost my virginity to your daughter, for crying out loud. Richard Hayden Ugh, I can actually hear you getting fatter.This is like a bad Twilight Zone. I think Im growing a tumour. MichelleListen up, you little spazoids. I know where you live and Ive seen where you sleep. I swear to everything holy that your mothers will cry when they see what Ive done to you.PaulThese shoes are Italian. Theyre worth more than your life.Ray ZalinskyTed, send over a bottle of bubbly in a bucket of ice and a card. Have the card read, Tough luck, get drunk on me. Use the bucket to ice down your marbles, Yours, Z.Ted ReillyOh, real good. Real good. I had a kidney removed last April, but I still have the other one.Kid in BankOh, yeah right. It was some other real fat guy with a tiny head.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Cultural Dimensions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cultural Dimensions - Assignment Example Cultural dimensions Disparities and similarities exist in the cultural domains between the two countries. The two countries exhibit lower long-term orientation. They score normative in this dimension. Spanish people prefer keeping their lives normal without considering what the future entails. Americans treat changes that arise in the society with great suspicion. They tend to analyze emerging information to confirm its validity. Americans possess good analytical skills that give them a clear view whether particular information is good or disastrous. The foundation of businesses in America is short-term goals. America and Spain share individualism in the cultural domains. The members Interact freely with people from other parts of the world. Americans find it easy to interact and seek information from non-Americans. They exhibit free-spirited interactions amongst themselves simplifying their engagement that relates to business and other activities. In the power distance domain of culture, the countries perform differently. In contrast to Spanish, Americans do not appreciate the fact that people must be different in the society. They constantly struggle to address the inequality that exists among people. Most employees in America prefer to participate in the decision-making process and tend to question the actions of the authorities on issues that relate to them. In Spain, people accept the diversity prevalent in the society. They make little effort to breach the gap. Spanish people refer to the decisions made by the authorities as autocratic and rarely challenge the directives from the leaders. In uncertainty avoidance domain, the two countries exist on opposite sides of the divide. Spain scores highly in this domain while America performance is below average. Americans find it easy to incorporate new ideas than the Spanish people.